- My husband has retired. He is enjoying himself.
- I found a pencil case in the playground. Sophie told me it was hers.
- The red car, which was being driven by the robber, screamed up the road.
- The politician, who was not very popular, left the venue through the back door.
- King Henry had already married twice, but that didn’t stop him marrying again.
- Would you like some cakes? Yes, I’ll take these please.
- I went into the shop to buy one book and came out with another.
- I saw a red and a blue blouse, but I didn’t like either.
- The protesters were asked to leave. Some refused.
- He says one thing and does another.
- demonstratives: (this, that, these, those)
- Universal determiners: each, every, all, both
- Partitive determiners: some, someone, anyone, anybody, no-one, none, neither, either
- Quantifiers: many, much, few, little, several, enough
- Numerals – cardinal and ordinal, one, the first
Various nouns can refer to items already mentioned and often they indicate some feeling as well (often used in persuasive texts):
- Children spell better if they learn 10 spellings a week. This claim/assumption/lie/argument/promise/rumour/suggestion is open to debate.
- During training, the footballer broke his leg. This accident/disaster was a blow to the club.
- The door opened and a cat shot across the road. Ten minutes later the same cat was seen in the car park.
- Roses are very beautiful. The same is true of orchids.
- She wore a red dress, with a matching hat.
- Sam believed Santa would arrive down the chimney at midnight. Mum knew differently.
- The 5th brigade surrounded the castle. The Rifles were positioned similarly.
- I thought life was wonderful. I had no reason to think otherwise.
- Well, you might not believe this, but I don’t like sweets much.
- These were the facts. On a cold winter’s day in December…
- The following account is based on notes from that period.
- Hercule Poirot drew the following conclusions: that the murder had been committed by the policeman.
- In the next chapter, we will examine the theory in detail.
- The details below will provide you with the truth.
- There is only one actress who could have been chosen for this role: Dame Judi Dench.
The difference between substitution and referencing can seem a little confusing at first glance. Whereas referencing relates to the meaning of the text and retrieval of a specific thing mentioned, substitution is the replacement of one item by another and it relates particularly to the replacement of the wording in the text. The following examples highlight the difference between these.
- My battery has run out. I need to recharge it. (This is reference, because the ‘it’ is referring to the ‘battery’ previously mentioned.)
- My battery has run out. I need to get another one. (This is substitution, because ‘another one’ does not refer to the same battery previously mentioned.
Nominal substitution – one, ones, same. The substitute often carries some information that distinguishes it from the original item, e.g. a different modifier.
- I love eating smarties, especially the orange ones.
- The cheese sandwich was good, but the smoked salmon one was better!
- My father is a doctor. All being well, I will be the same.
- Have you washed up? I will do later.
- Why don’t you complain to the council? I have done.
- Words do not come to mind as easily as they used to do.
- Is there going to be a storm? The weather forecaster says so/not.
- Will that be enough? If so, I will be relieved. If not, I shall cry.
- Are you all right? I think so.
In English people often omit words rather than repeat them. Different types of ellipsis are as follows.
- Have you been playing? Yes I have.
- What have you been doing? Swimming.
- She can see better than he can.
- He was earning more than I was.
- Cook leeks exactly as you would onions.
- They would stop if they could.
- Very few of us want to go, although we know we must.
- The poster should have created more interest than it has.
- I’m sure it was repeated on the news. It must have been.
- Do the children want to come? I think they do.
- Does the parrot talk? Yes he does. No he doesn’t.
- Did John Lennon write that song? I’m sure he did/didn’t.
- I think you are right. I’m sure I am.
- She was great! I thought she might be.
- With infinitive verb.
- He advised her to visit a doctor, but she couldn’t afford to.
- Don’t tell me if you don’t want to.
- At last he agreed to do what I asked him to
- Do you think parents know how long planning takes? No, I don’t think they do.
- Has she got any idea about how he feels? She should (have).
- Will she be happy there? She’d better (be).
- Who was going to switch on the Christmas lights? The mayor was.
This term in cohesion relates to connections made internally within sentences (conjunctions), and connections made externally between sentences and paragraphs (connecting adverbs, sometimes referred to as conjuncts or transition words). For more information, click here.
Considering which connecting adverbs are appropriate to which text type is important for cohesion. We would not necessarily use the same conjuncts for a story as we would an explanation or a non-chronological report.
Lexical cohesion relies on vocabulary choice. Halliday and Hasan provide two different types:
- reiteration, which includes repetition, synonyms, close synonyms and superordinates (words which include the meaning of another word, e.g. animal is a superordinate word for cat).
- collocation, which includes words which are associated or belong together.
In the above paragraph, we have repetition of horse, synonyms of pony and colt, animal as a superordinate and we also have the word mane, which is closely associated with horses.
Verb tense and form
Cohesion in text is also created by maintenance of the same tense/form and by correct selection of tense, for example when expanding verb phrases. Experienced writers are able to use movement between tenses and forms in a sophisticated manner for effect, but children often find maintaining consistency more problematic. They may start a recount in the past tense and move into the present tense later in the text, or slip into the past tense in a set of instructions, when they started in the imperative.